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Chapter 4 Experimental Design What follows should be considered an overview of the experimental design. A more detailed plan will be submitted at the time of the proposal, based on favorable review of this white paper.
Year of Experiment and Domain We are aiming for about a 4 month experiment between January and April of Experimental Design The conceptual picture as shown in Figure 5 will guide the design of the experiment.
In each of these, specific issues will be addressed. Cloud-free area in the Arabian Sea: Cloud-topped marine boundary layer north of the ITCZ: Polluted convective clouds in the ITCZ: Less polluted convective clouds in the southern margin of the ITCZ: Less polluted cloud-topped marine boundary layer and cloud-free air south of the ITCZ: The experiment will consist of an intensive field phase lasting about 1.
Field phase The following platforms will be used during the field phase: Furthermore, the aircraft and ship based Radar data can be used as ground truth for validating TRMM estimates of precipitation and surface radiation budget.
Male will serve as the "control" for the polluted air, while Mauritius which is southwest of Maldives, will serve as the "control" for air entering the ITCZ from the southern Indian Ocean.
Enhanced observation phase Historical data: Analysis of surface aerosol data taken in India will be undertaken. Surface observations of aerosols, including their composition, from India and the Far East are very critical to the planned experiment.
Analyzed and model fields: In addition, 3-dimensional fields will be derived for the Indian Ocean region using satellite data analysis.
Such observations are needed for periods of at least two years, one year before and one year after the experiment and also during the experiment. Easy to maintain and automated ground measurements e.
In addition, since very little is known about this region, pre-INDOEX cruises will be required to ensure the success of the experiment. The following activities are underway: A team from the University of Maryland consisted of R. Pinker, in collaboration with J. Prospero University of Miami ; T.
The team measured trace gases, bulk aerosol, and surface meteorological variables; ozone, humidity and temperature aloft, aerosol optical depth. The results are currently being analyzed.
Mitra coordinator of global change programs in IndiaC4 and MPI are co-sponsoring measurements of water vapor, ozone, aerosols and radiation fluxes on board an Indian research vessel between and These data are critical for understanding the regional patterns of SST and evolution of the warm pool, which in turn are required to understand the evolution and migration of the ITCZ.
If found necessary, such data will also be collected during the experimental phase. Role of Models Models will play a substantial role in the design of the experiment and in the post-field phase analysis.
Atmospheric GCMs and three dimensional transport models will be employed to guide the experimental design and plan. One example of this simulation is Figure 10, which shows parcel trajectories of an inert trace gas with sources from various cities in India.
This model, which is currently being validated with CEPEX data, will be used to simulate the chemistry of reactive species in the Indian Ocean.
Another example of a pre-field phase model study is one by LMD, which is currently undertaking the analysis of the NE monsoon and its transition to SW monsoon in an ensemble of simulation, including one year Atmospheric Models Intercomparision Project AMIP simulation, and an ensemble of 16 independent 4-year simulations of the period Figure The trajectory starting points are located in the middle of the boundary layer to stimulate pollution transports from 4 major source regions in India: Madras blueBombay pinkCalcutta black and Delhi green.
The trajectories, calculated 18 hours apart from January 1 to April 30, are grouped according to starting hour GMT per month. The trajectories are marked by their starting date and time e.
January-February average wind velocities at mb for left and rightfrom an ensemble average of 16 independent four-year simulations of the period with the LMD AGCM forced by observed SST's.
Harzallah Ongoing and Planned Aerosol Related Experiments A number of national and international programs have been initiated to address the aerosol-climate, chemistry and climate change issue Table 2.
Funding for some of the pre-INDOEX studies are made available from existing resources within C4 and the other participating institutions. For the rest, including the field phase, we will seek participation and funding support from the funding agencies in France, Germany, India, the Netherlands and the U.
C4 will assemble a small group of U.Chapter 4: Cognition and Experience: Quine and Cassirer (The Epistemological Problem: What do we know?) "The totality of our so-called knowledge or beliefs, from the most casual matters of geography and history to the profoundest laws of atomic physics or even of pure mathematics and logic, is a man-made fabric which impinges on.
A science report is generally completed after you do a scientific test or experiment of some sort. The thesis of the science report basically relates to what your hypothesis was before you began the experiment. Jul 11, · Reading: The Sacred Canopy (P. Berger): Ch. 7 Secularization and the Problem of Legitimation p Berger indicates his intention to use the crisis of theology in Protestantism as an indicator of a worldwide crisis in theology.
Jul 06, · Writings on Writing a Thesis (An experiment) Exploring the process of writing a thesis. Wednesday, July 6, Reading: The Sacred Canopy (P.
Berger): Ch. 4 Religion and Alienation (Day 5) p discusses alienation. Keep in mind the context in which this is being written. Schreyer Honors Program: Guidelines for Writing a Thesis Undergraduate research is a unique opportunity for students to explore important scientific questions.
The thesis should reflect the thinking, experimentation and results of the exploration. Chap4 thesis experiment Essay CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Angelika keiskei (Ashitaba)crude non-polar extract The crude non-polar extract from the plant Angelika keiskei (Ashitaba) was tested for the anti-bacterial property by using the Kirby – Bauer Disk Diffusion test.