List of business entities Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdictionbut several common entities exist: A sole proprietorshipalso known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner operates the business alone and may hire employees.
Large international organisation bureaucratic structure: Precision, speed, unambiguity, … strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration.
They are better suited for more complex or larger scale organizations, usually adopting a tall structure. The tension between bureaucratic structures and non-bureaucratic is echoed in Burns and Stalker's  distinction between mechanistic and organic structures.
The Weberian characteristics of bureaucracy are: Clear defined roles and responsibilities A hierarchical structure Respect for merit Bureaucratic structures have many levels of management ranging from senior executives to regional managers, all the way to department store managers.
Since there are many levels, decision-making authority has to pass through more layers than flatter organizations. A bureaucratic organization has rigid and tight procedures, policies and constraints. This kind of structure is reluctant to adapt or change what they have been doing since the company started.
Organizational charts exist for every department, and everyone understands who is in charge and what their responsibilities are for every situation. Decisions are made through an organizedaucratic structures, the authority is at the top and information is then flowed from top to bottom.
This causes for more rules and standards for the company which operational process is watched with close supervision. Some advantages for bureaucratic structures for top-level managers are they have a tremendous control over organizational structure decisions. This works best for managers who have a command and control style of managing.
Strategic decision-making is also faster because there are fewer people it has to go through to approve. This can make it hard for a company to adapt to changing conditions in the marketplace. Post-bureaucratic[ edit ] The term of post bureaucratic is used in two senses in the organizational literature: This may include total quality managementculture management and matrix managementamongst others.
None of these however has left behind the core tenets of Bureaucracy. Hierarchies still exist, authority is still Weber's rational, legal type, and the organization is still rule bound.
Heckscher, arguing along these lines, describes them as cleaned up bureaucracies,  rather than a fundamental shift away from bureaucracy.
Gideon Kunda, in his classic study of culture management at 'Tech' argued that 'the essence of bureaucratic control - the formalization, codification and enforcement of rules and regulations - does not change in principle Another smaller group of theorists have developed the theory of the Post-Bureaucratic Organization.
Charles Heckscher has developed an ideal type, the post-bureaucratic organization, in which decisions are based on dialogue and consensus rather than authority and command, the organization is a network rather than a hierarchy, open at the boundaries in direct contrast to culture management ; there is an emphasis on meta-decision-making rules rather than decision-making rules.
This sort of horizontal decision-making by consensus model is often used in housing cooperativesother cooperatives and when running a non-profit or community organization. It is used in order to encourage participation and help to empower people who normally experience oppression in groups.
Still other theorists are developing a resurgence of interest in complexity theory and organizationsand have focused on how simple structures can be used to engender organizational adaptations. For instance, Miner et al. Their study makes links to simple structures and improviser learning.
Other scholars such as Jan Rivkin and Sigglekow,  and Nelson Repenning  revive an older interest in how structure and strategy relate in dynamic environments.
Functional structure[ edit ] A functional organizational structure is a structure that consists of activities such as coordination, supervision and task allocation.
The organizational structure determines how the organization performs or operates. The term organizational structure refers to how the people in an organization are grouped and to whom they report. One traditional way of organizing people is by function.
Some common functions within an organization include production, marketing, human resources, and accounting. This organizing of specialization leads to operational efficiency, where employees become specialists within their own realm of expertise.
On the other hand, the most typical problem with a functional organizational structure is that communication within the company can be rather rigid, making the organization slow and inflexible. Therefore, lateral communication between functions becomes very important, so that information is disseminated not only vertically, but also horizontally within the organization.How to Format a Business Report by Stephanie Faris - Updated July 12, From a young age, you learn that if you want to convey a .
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B u s i n e s s a n d R e p o r t W r i t i n g S k i l l s a t C S U V e r s i o n 1. 0 2 0 0 8 Acknowledgement: Workplace Productivity Program (WPP) grant from DEEWR.
Formal Reports and Proposals 9 T he distinctions between formal and informal reports are often blurred.
Nevertheless, a formal report is usually written to someone in another company or organization. English Letter writing exercises Improve your English writing. Letter cloze exercises New iPad and Mobile Exercises. Informal letter asking for a reference (good intermediate and up) Learn how to write English letters asking for leslutinsduphoenix.com is a letter to a friend asking for some help.
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