FactCheck has already looked at the statistics on killings by law enforcement officials. Though imperfect, the official figures suggest blacks are disproportionately likely to die at the hands of police. Several people have left comments pointing out that this is not necessarily surprising or unfair, since blacks are also disproportionately likely to be involved in violent crime in the US, thereby putting themselves in the firing line.
The psychology of criminal conduct PCC emerged as the brainchild of Canadian forensic researcher Don Andrews and his colleagues in the s.
It is based on seven essential criteria.
It is Empirical The Psychology of Criminal Conduct ensures that the content it uses to make decisions in both practice and research is empirically-derived, or based on evidence.
It accepts only rigourously-tested, reliable, and consistent data that possess surface validity, dynamic validity, and predictive validity. It also sets a minimum cutoff of accuracy, a pearson r of. This kind of minimum level of accepted accuracy is common in psychological practice, but takes on a particular importance when used in assessing criminal risk levels of individuals.
To get a sense of just some of the many assessment scales clinical psychologists use to assess criminogenic risk, see the assessments page It is Ethical Like standard psychological practice, the Psychology of Criminal Conduct adheres to several fundamental ethical principles.
It supports the notions of integrity proper administration, sound, rational, and empirically-based decisionsjustice fairness and equality for all individualsnon-maleficience the desire not to harm othersbeneficience the desire to do goodand autonomy individual rights.
It is Practical The Psychology of Criminal Conduct provides human service delivery with essential content for treatment programs, risk assessment, and prison classification.
Through empirical findings and rigourously-tested research, PCC enriches assessment tools with proper risk factors, ensuring a minimum degree of accuracy is reached before making a decision.
It also identifies the treatment targets needed for human service delivery, such as antisocial thoughts, attitudes, peers, associations, or personality features. In prison-classification, it identifies those psychological and non-psychological features of offenders that are most likely to result in prison infractions and violation of rules, including escape attempts and staff-directed violence.
It also ensures proper allocation of offenders to security levels most suited to them, savings taxpayers money while increasing public safety. It Identifies Criminal Covariates Years of forensic research have yielded consistent findings regarding the causal relationship between certain features and criminal predisposition.
It is based on Social Learning Theory Individuals learn behaviours either directly or vicariously. These skills can be either functional or dysfunctional, conducive to the law, or hostile to the law.
Criminal behaviour is learned like any other behaviour, and, like other learning, includes the techniques, motivations and attitudes necessary to successfully learn that behaviour.
It involves Individual Differences Keen interest into the uniqueness of individuals is a key componenet of the Psychology of Criminal Conduct, as treatment and rehabilitation, as well as risk assessment and classification, must be sensitive to specific life circumstances and personal characteristics.
Whether one suffers from a mental illness or not is vital in allocating security, supervision, assessment, treatment and aftercare. This model criticizes existing risk-needs approaches as too narrow in reducing criminal behaviour. The Good Lives approach argues that every offender has inherent difficulties and underdeveloped skills that, while causally related to criminal behaviour, may be unrealistic as treatment targets.
In essence, while the majority of offenders on average will benefit from the broad nomothetic angle taken by risk-needs, many individuals will benefit more from an offender-specific, ideographic angle.
Ward highlights findings by Maruna, who demonstrated that active, persisting criminals had very different conceptions of themselves compared to recently rehabilitated, ex-offenders.Jan 25, · Developmental Theories are quite closely related to Criminology Theories when it comes to the juvenile delinquents or offenders.
Crime during childhood creates a large impact on the development of a juvenile. Offenders, Rational Theory Leave a comment Rational Choice & Developmental Theories;. American Journal of Criminal Law; The Value of Civilian Handgun Possession as a Deterrent to Crime or a Defense Against Crime, by Don B.
Kates. Rational Choice Theory insists that crime is calculated and deliberate. All criminals are rational actors who practice conscious decision making, that simultaneously work towards gaining the maximum benefits of their present leslutinsduphoenix.comr aspect of rational choice theory is the fact that many offenders make decisions based on bounded.
OVERVIEW. As early as , it was estimated that more had been written about "gun control" than all other crime-related topics combined.
Yet this pre academic literature was both fundamentally flawed and severely biased. Agricultural Education. AGRI Interdisciplinary Agricultural Science and Technology. This course is designed to develop competencies of agricultural science teachers to teach essential elements in agricultural business, agricultural mechanization, animal science, and horticulture and crop science.
I am a professor and head of the clinical neuropsychology working group in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the University Medical Center in Hamburg, Germany.