This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract South Asian countries have developed infectious disease control programs such as routine immunization, vaccination, and the provision of essential drugs which are operating nationwide in cooperation with many local and foreign NGOs.
Open in a separate window Prior to enrollment in Puentes, all patients experienced symptoms consistent with TB and visited a doctor within a few days or a few months of initial symptoms. Only a few participants received some type of directly observed therapy DOT for their initial diagnosis of TB, either under home care or by visiting a clinic.
The majority were provided monthly medication to be taken on their own at home. The majority of participants were referred to Puentes by their physician.
One participant was referred by his brother, who saw an advertisement on television. While these results are displayed in separate sections below for clarity in the manuscript, the general sentiment expressed by patients was that these areas were interrelated with respect to the impact of having and undergoing treatment for MDR-TB.
Psychological Effects of Treatment The most common emotion expressed by participants was a feeling of hopelessness and fear when initially diagnosed with MDR-TB. Several shared their initial concerns that necessary second-line medications to treat MDR-TB were not going to be available or accessible, and that they would not be able to pay for treatment.
I was worried I would die and [unsure] what would happen to my children Many participants also noted that they were distressed to have to change their living behaviors substantially. While this was the only patient who specifically noted being fired after being diagnosed with MDR-TB, we did not specifically ask about how employment changed post-diagnosis.
Nonetheless, in every interview, participants noted how having their Social and economic impact of tuberculosis reduced or having to go on sick leave for treatment created a financial burden that created psychological stress and anxiety.
I was newly married when I was diagnose[d] with the disease. A few other participants also expressed concern about their long-term quality of life and health after treatment. Participants noting this were generally younger and with children who lived at home with them. Social Effects of Diagnosis and Treatment All participants noted some degree of impact to their social lives after being diagnosed with, and while undergoing treatment for, MDR-TB.
Of particular concern to participants was the change in how others viewed and interacted with them, and their perception of themselves and their ability to continue participating in their usual social activities. Stigma often results due to social disapproval or misunderstanding of personal characteristics or beliefs that are counter to cultural norms or understanding.
Almost all participants experienced some level of abandonment by friends or family, mostly due fear and limited understanding of MDR-TB transmission. Two participants mentioned that they deliberately separated themselves from friends and family in order to protect loved ones from potential infection.
While the majority of participants noted the stigma of MDR-TB, and isolation from family and friends, a few participants did not notice any significant changes in their close relationships.
One participant in particular shared that shortly after diagnosis with MDR-TB many family members ignored her due to misunderstandings about the disease, but the situation improved after improving communications.
Additionally, participants did not discuss the level of stigma or social isolation they experienced during their TB diagnosis.
Because of this, it we were unable to compare the level of social burdens experienced during their MDR-TB diagnosis to that of their TB diagnosis. Economic Effects of Treatment The majority of participants reported reductions in salary after becoming ill with MDR-TB, and some were laid off after they were diagnosed.
It was unclear whether these changes were directly related to their MDR-TB diagnosis, as participants were vague in describing the sequence of events related to their employment throughout their MDR-TB treatment.
Only two were able to continue to work even after diagnosis. The majority were unable to work either due to treatment effects and a few due to perceived reactions to their MDR-TB diagnosis by their workplace. During their initial TB diagnoses, many participants were unable to complete treatment or received treatment intermittently, which they reported as likely contributing to their MDR-TB status.
Many participants noted the benefit of having a Puentes nurse visit them every day as a key reason for their success with MDR-TB treatment. They suggested that additional programs such as one-on-one counseling, or group meetings with other MDR-TB patients could further improve Puentes, noting that during a time of distress, social support is something patients seek and could directly improve quality of life for patients.
The binational US-Mexico Puentes program was created in that year with the goal of creating infrastructure to support early detection of MDR-TB in patients, to provide outreach services to assist patients with successful adherence to, and completion of, MDR-TB treatment, and to complement TB activities already ongoing in BC.
OBJECTIVE: Previous economic analyses of tuberculosis control interventions have focused on the provider perspective. To assess the overall economic impact of the disease and the adequacy of current control strategies from a societal viewpoint, the determination of . The state of Baja California, Mexico had the highest prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Mexico in Objective To understand the socioeconomic burdens of MDR-TB disease and its treatment on patients in Tijuana and Mexicali, Mexico.
Social & Emotional Impacts of Cancer Almost all cancer survivors will face psychological and emotional and issues that can show up many years after treatment. The . HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS OF TB ON MIGRANTS AND COMMUNITIES There is growing evidence and understanding that social and economic inequalities sustain migrants’ vulnerability to TB, as do discriminatory.
Economic and Social Effect of Tuberculosis Statistically speaking, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one-third of the world’s population and is the most common single death causing agent in young adults (WHO, ).